The Department of Botany, established initially as the Department of Biology in 1965, was renamed as Department of Botany in 1999 after the de-linking of the Pre-Degree Courses from the Arts and Science Colleges. The Model II B. Sc. Botany (Voc. Food Microbiology) programme was introduced in the year 1999.  The Department also offers a PG programme in M. Sc. Food and Industrial Microbiology which was sanctioned under the UGC innovative programme for the period 2013-2018. The course has now been shifted to the self financing mode from 2018-19 onwards. The Department offers an Add on Course in Basic Horticulture and Pomology. A certificate course in Baking and Confectionery was introduced in the Department in 2017-18. The Department has staff strength of 6 teaching (3 permanent faculties and 3 guest faculties) and 3 non-teaching staff.

Programme Specific Outcomes

 B.Sc Botany

  • Acquires a scientific knowledge and basic understanding of fundamentals of Life Science
  • Develop consciousness about phylogeny of life.
  • Creates a scientific outlook towards life.
  • Creates awareness about sustainable development.
  • To inculcate knowledge about conservation of nature.

 Core  courses:


Anatomy, reproductive botany and microtechnique


Imparting an insight into the internal structure and reproduction of the most evolved group of plants, the Angiosperm.

? Understand the individual cells and also tissues simultaneously

? Understand the structural adaptations in plants growing in different environment.

? Understand the morphology and development of reproductive parts.

? Get an insight in to the fruit and seed development.

? Understand the techniques used to preserve and study plant materials


Research methodology, biophysics and biostatistics

To equip the students to conduct independent research and prepare research reports.

? To make the students acquaint with different tools and techniques used in research work.

? To equip the students with basic computer skills necessary for conducting research.

? To enable the students to have enough numerical skills necessary to carry out research


Plant physiology and biochemistry

Acquire basic knowledge needed for proper understanding of plant functioning.

? Familiarize with the basic skills and techniques related to plant physiology.

? Understand the role, structure and importance of the bio molecules associated with plant life.

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Environmental science and human rights

Acquaint the student with the significance of Environmental Science.

? Make the students aware about the extent of the total biodiversity and the importance of their conservation.

? Help the student to design novel mechanisms for the sustainable utilization of natural resources.

? Enable the students to understand the structure and function of the ecosystems.

? Enable the students to understand various kinds of pollution in the environment, their impacts on the ecosystem and their control measures

? Make the students aware about various environmental laws in India and the role of various movements in the protection of nature and natural resources.


Horticulture and nursery management

Understand the importance of horticulture in human welfare.

? Understand the propagation and cultural practices of useful vegetable, fruit and garden plants.

? Understand the impact of modern technologies in biology on horticultural plants.

? Understand the basic concepts of landscaping and garden designing.

? Inculcate interest in landscaping, gardening and flower and fruit culture




Make the students to opt various ecotourism programs in the self employment stream

? Make the students aware of the usefulness of ecotourism in the conservation of natural resources.

? Help the students to assess various ecotourism programs


Genetics, plant breeding and horticulture


Imparting an insight into the principles of heredity

? Understand the patterns of inheritance in different organisms

? Understand the inheritance pattern of nuclear and extra nuclear genes

? Understand the methods of crop improvement

? Understand the importance of horticulture in human welfare

? Develop skill in gardening technique among students

Cell and molecular biology

Understand the ultra structure and functioning of cell in the sub-microscopic and molecular level.

? Get an idea of origin, concept of continuity and complexity of life activities.

? Familiarization of life processes.

? Understand the basic and scientific aspect of diversity.

? Understand the cytological aspects of growth and development.

? Understand DNA as the basis of heredity and variation.

Angiosperm morphology, taxonomy and economic botany

Acquaint with the aims, objectives and significance of taxonomy.

? Identify the common species of plants growing in Kerala and their systematic position.

? Develop inductive and deductive reasoning ability.

? Acquaint with the basic technique in the preparation of herbarium.

? Familiarizing with the plants having immense economic importance

Biotechnology and bioinformatics

Understand the current developments in the field of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics.

? Equip the students to carry out plant tissue culture.

? Introduce the vast repositories of biological data knowledge.

? Equip to access and analyze the data available in the databases.


Inculcate and impart an idea about the business opportunities in the field of plant sciences.

? Develop an entrepreneurial mindset and also to stick on to the core subject among the Botany students.

? Give an idea about the need of sustainable development and organic farming.

? Harness the opportunities and potentials in the field of ecotourism, processing technology and food sciences.

Vocational course

Microbial World- Part I

  1. Understand the  history and  scope of microbiology
  2. Study the basic cell structure
  3. Study the different types of microorganisms
  4. Understand the reproduction  mechanism  in microorganisms

Microbial World – Part II

  1. Understand the metabolic diversity of microorganisms
  2. Understand  nutritional and physical requirements of microorganisms
  3. Study the methods for quantification of microbial growth
  4. Inculcate knowledge about the concepts of mutation and genetic recombination
  5. Gain practical skill about use of microscope, working of instruments

Applied Microbiology – Part I

  1. Understand the principles of sterilization and disinfection
  2. Gain knowledge about microbial growth types
  3. Understand  the significance and applications of bacterial staining
  4. Study about media and  media components
  5. Understand  the basics of bacterial  culturing techniques

Applied Microbiology – Part II

  1. Understand  the relation of microbes to environment and the concepts related to microbial interactions
  2. Understand the significance of  water microorganisms and water quality testing
  3. Understand the basics of  immunity and the various mechanisms of immune response
  4. Understand the biological properties and diseases caused by bacteria and virus
  5. Gain practical skill for identification of bacteria by staining methods

Principles of Food Microbiology

  1. Explain the factors influencing the growth of  microorganisms in food and
  2. Understand the significance and activities of microorganisms in foods
  3. Understand the various principles of food preservation
  4. Practical skill for identification and culturing of fungi

Contamination, Spoilage and Preservation of Food – Part I

  1. Understand the different sources of contamination of food from natural sources
  2. Gain knowledge about food spoilage and its causes
  3. Learn about the contamination, preservation and spoilage of sugars, fruits and vegetables
  4. Develop skills for isolation of bacteria in pure culture

Contamination, Spoilage and Preservation of Food – Part II

  1. Understand the spoilage types and preservation methods for meat and fish products
  2. Gain knowledge about the contamination sources, preservation methods and spoilage types of for poultry and egg products
  3. Develop idea about canned products and their spoilage types
  4. Develop skills for quantitative estimation of microorganisms

Food Fermentation, Food Infection and Foodborne Diseases

  1. Gain knowledge about fermented products and the microorganisms involved
  2. Inculcate knowledge about foodborne diseases and their control
  3. Understand the significance of food sanitation and the mechanisms used
  4. Understand the various food laws and standards
  5. Develop skills for checking yeast fermentation system
  6. Analyse and study biochemical properties of microorganisms

MSc Food & Industrial Microbiology

        i.            Understand the importance and scope of the discipline

      ii.            Inculcate interest  and love for  nature with its myriad living forms, particularly the 

miniature ones

    iii.            Impart knowledge of Science as the basic objective of education

    iv.            Develop a scientific attitude and an ability to work on their own so as to make them fit for the society

      v.            Develop skill in experimental design, use of equipments, interpretation and analysis of data

    vi.            Develop ability for the application of the acquired knowledge in day to daylife

  vii.            Build up professionals in food analysis, teaching and R&D work

  1. Formulate new technologies and newer food products and its extension to industry level

    ix.            Emerge as successful entrepreneurs



  1. Understand basic microbial structure and function
  2. Analyze and interpret results from a variety of microbiological methods and to apply these methods to analogous situation.
  3. Master laboratory skills in Microbiology.
  4. Demonstrate that microorganisms have an indispensible role in the environment.


  1. Understand the basic concepts related to enzymes.
  2. Study the structure and function of biomolecules.
  3. Understand various metabolic pathways and regulation of biochemical processes.
  4. Apply the theoretical basis to carry out experiments.


  1. Understand the structural and metabolic diversity of microorganisms.
  2. Understsand genetic and physiological regulation in microorganisms.
  3. Understand the concept of microbial metabolism
  4. Know the concepts of molecular basis of mutation and repair mechanisms.


  1. Explain the properties and reactions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins during storage and processing of foods and the effect of these on the quality and property of foods.
  2. Give an account of the main factors influencing the colour and flavour of food.
  3. Understand the composition of foods and the effect of these factors on foods.
  4. Study large scale and profit motivated production of microorganisms or their products for direct use or as inputs in the manufacture of other products


  1. Demonstrate instrumental techniques for the separation and analysis of macromolecules.
  2. Understand the particle and wave property of electromagnetic radiation.
  3. Master the techniques and instruments used in the laboratory and thereby develop experimental, observational and computational skills.
  4. Understand and demonstrate advanced microscopic techniques.


  1. Study various upstream, downstream processes and product recovery.
  2. Understand the design and application of fermentor/bioreactor.
  3. Demonstrate the production of microbial products.
  4. Understand and explain the science underlying the conversion of raw materials to final products.
  5. Evaluate the quality of raw materials and their influence on the properties of final products


  1. Understand the concepts of microbial genome.
  2. Explain the emergence of mutations and new gene variations.
  3. Understand the concepts, methods and applications of rDNA technology.
  4. Independently execute laboratory experiments using standard methods and techniques in molecular biology, with the appropriate analysis and interpretation of results.


  1. Explain the interactions between microorganisms and food and the factors influencing their growth and survival.
  2. Understand the significance and activities of microorganisms in foods.
  3. Explain the effects of fermentation in food production


  1. Understand the production of enzymes, recombinant proteins and vaccines.
  2. Study the industrially useful microbial enzymes, their applications in food and pharmaceutical industry.
  3. Learn about the production of primary and secondary metabolites.
  4. Understand the steps involved in the production of wine, cake, cookies


  1. Understand the different food preservation methods.
  2. Learn about the contamination, preservation and spoilage of perishable foods.
  3. Demonstrate canning procedure.

Understand the different sources of contamination of food from natural sources


  1. Understand the fundamentals of packaging technology.
  2. Understand the safety evaluation of materials used for packing.
  3. Apply and examine the knowledge of properties for selection of packaging materials for foods & food product.
  4. Select between different techniques of food packaging


  1. Study the impact of microorganism on global ecology.
  2. Understand the human ecology and evolution.
  3. Study about biodiversity and its management.
  4. Gain awareness about environmental pollution and control measures


  1. Understand the biological properties and diseases caused by bacteria, virus,fungi and protozoa.
  2. Describe the epidemiology of infectious agents including how infectious diseases are transmitted.
  3. Evaluate methods used to identify infectious agents in the clinical microbiology lab.
  4. Explain general and specific mechanisms by which an infectious agent causes disease.


  1. Understand about probiotic microorganisms, prebiotic foods.
  2. Explain the potential health benefits of food components.
  3. Study about novel foods, value added foods, Genetically Modified Foods.
  4. Understand the risks and side effects of probiotics.


  1. Understand the basics of Enzymology.
  2.  Explain the concept and applications of enzymes in biotechnology-related industries
  3. Understand the kinetics of enzymes.
  4. Propose a new application for the use of enzymes in biosensor approach to benefit human life


  1. Understand the immune response and mechanisms.
  2. Study about immunological disorders.
  3. Understand the concepts related to cells and organs related to immune system.
  4. Describe the basis structure of the cellular receptors and discuss their interactions during an immune response.
  5. Understand the principles governing vaccination and the mechanisms of protection against disease.


  1. Demonstrate the different sensory methods used for the quality determination of various foods.
  2. Perform various tests to detect the presence of adulterants in foods.
  3. Understand the various food laws and standards.
  4. Understand the importance of Quality Control and Quality Assurance.


  1. Develop skills in different computational methods used in basic Biostatistics.
  2. Study about different softwares used in Bioinformatics.
  3. Demonstrate the biological databases for protein and nucleic acids.
  4. Get familiar with various research institutes, schemes, funding agencies


  1. Familiarize with regulatory practices and policies.
  2. Study about international marketing and trade.
  3. Comprehend benefits of GM technology and related issues
  4. Recognize importance of protection of innovative ideas and its role in business


  1. Understand the relation of microbes to environment.
  2. Know concepts related with microbial interaction.
  3. Understand the use, importance and recycling of liquid and solid waste.
  4. Study diversity, composition, and function of microbial communities



  1. Understand the pathogenic microorganisms transmitted through raw milk.
  2. Know about various preservation techniques in milk.
  3. Describe the composition of starter cultures and their use in dairy products
  4. Display knowledge on culture dependent and culture independent techniques for quantification of microorganisms from dairy products. 

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